last updated on 27/03/2006
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What's this?

This little document was written in order to make it easier for you to get started with coding the psx. (Ehrm... well... infact the huge amount of questions hitting my inbox somewhat 'motivated' me to write this as well ;=) hehe....)
However, this doc is dedicated to PSX-newbies, not PROGRAMMING-newbies, so if you don't have a certain amount of programming knowledge better get a good book from your local library - This will not teach you how to code but it will make it possible to use your existing programming skills...
if you are interested in getting started with psx code, you may want to save this page for further reference, 'coz a lot of the so called FAQs (oh G0d i hate this word =) may be answered here.

What's new?

01/06/99 nothing... or everything... whatever ;)


What IS ...? - Terms and abbreviations

What do i need to program the PSX?

Hardware Software Now when i got all this, how to make it work?

commslink, action replay/gameshark

setting up your Tools fighting your makefiles

First Aid Programming basics So far so good... Now, may i look at some examples? Is it legal to program the PSX?

  • licenced developers
  • members of net yaroze
  • hobby programmer using unofficial tools
Where to get more Information on PSX?

Info on the Internet

  • official Stuff
  • Scene
  • Products
  • misc
boring Stuff
  • Disclaimer
  • Credits
  • greets

What IS ...? - Terms and abbreviations

SN System News ... uh, no that's wrong =) Actually, the abbreviation 'SN' had been invented back in the 'old days' and no one really remembers it's exact meaning .) However, these are the ones responsible for PSYQ (the professional/commercial compiler set).
SCEE Sony Computer Entertainment Europe
SCEA Sony Computer Entertainment America
SCEI Sony Computer Entertainment Japan
NDA Non Disclosure Argument - the contract you have to seal with SONY in order to become a licenced developer or net yaroze member (it basically tells you not to spread anything and not to talk to anyone...nice, hu? =)
PSX Playstation, a 32-bit video-game Console (developed by Sony Corporation)
2 Mb System-RAM, 512K Kernel ROM
I/O: 2 serial (PAD), 1 serial (non RS232, can be interfaced with Skywalker's YAROZE cable), 1 parallel port
3 16-bit root counters
7 DMA channels
YAROZE (Ya-rou-ze: japanese for "let's do it!"). 'black' PSX designed for hobby-development
CPU Central Processing Unit
32-bit MIPS RISC R3051, 34 MHz (developed by LSI Logic)
GTE Geometric Transformation Engine
Equivalent to the numerical-value operation processor which takes charge of operation of 3D. By being only for 3D operations, it differs from the standard floating-point coprocessor of R3000
MDEC Motion jpeg DECoder engine
GPU Graphic Processing Unit
1 Mb Video RAM
Equivalent to 3D accelerator board of PC, takes charge of polygon drawing
SPU Sound Processing Unit
12K of Sound RAM
24 ADPCM channels, 44.1 Khz
Equivalent to sound boards, such as sound blaster.
MMU Memory Management Unit
CD-ROM double speed
ISO9660 compatible file-system
256KB cache
SIO serial input/output
PIO parallel input/output
ARP/AR Action RePlay
PAR Pro Action Replay
GS Game Shark
OT Ordering Table
An OT is basically a list of drawing primitives to be drawn by the GPU, similar to openGL display lists
CLUT Color LookUp Table
In 4 or 8 bit graphics mode the palette of colors is defined in a CLUT
LIBPS Usually, if a program is created in NET YAROZE environment, it will be using libps. libps consists of libps.a and libps.exe, where libps.a is linked to a program, and libps.exe is read from system CD-ROM of NET YAROZE.
The relation of libps.exe and libps.a resembles the relation of the dynamic link library (.DLL) of MS-Windows, and the import library for using DLL. Only the jump table to the library, not the library main part which is in libps.exe, is recorded by libps.a and linked to a program.
If you want to execute a Yaroze intro/game on gray PSX, you must load LIBPS.EXE to 0x8000f800 before running the intro or game.
.tim image format that is supported by psyq/yaroze libraries
.tmd psyq/yaroze 3d-object format
.vag ADPCM packed sample that can be played by SPU
.seq sort of midi file that can be used with psyq/yaroze libs

What do i need to program the PSX?


professional Devkit, debugstation ("blue PSX")
This is only available from Sony for licensed developers, so you either already got one or prolly never will ;=)
Yaroze ("black PSX") - about 600$US
Yaroze is sold with a cable to connect it to the PC, and with a complete development kit (that includes compilers, libraries, documentation, samples). Moreover, all the Yaroze users stay in contact via the official sites/mailing lists/forums.
However, since LIBPS is just a subset of the Psyq libraries you cannot use the MDEC to play cinematic sequences, nor the CD-ROM drive unless you implement it yourself. You also cannot burn CDs with your productions, nor sell them to anyone. You can only upload your executable and data files to Yaroze memory (at 115kbps serial transfer ;() and then run it, and there is no way to dynamically load data from CD-ROM or PC hard disk. In other words, you can only code games/intros that fit in 2 Mb of RAM together with LIBPS.EXE, which limits your memory quite a bit in some cases.
standard grey PSX - about 200$US
This is what you most probably already have. Against all rumours it is very well possible to use a standard 'grey' PSX for programming purposes in conjunction with Action Replay/Gameshark and PC CommsLink or respectively, the xplorer/xploder.
Action Replay/Gameshark (developed by DATEL) - about 30$US
The first so-called Action Replay used in the same way was developed for the Commodore 64 .It generally is a hardware device that let players hack games in order to activate cheat codes (like infinite lives, invulnerability, and so on).
The Action Replay for Playstation appears as a little cartridge that must be inserted into the Playstation parallel port. When turned on, it lets players activate cheat codes for practically all Playstation games, before booting the game itself.
It is STRONGLY recommended to get the original Action Replay from Datel, against the Taiwanese clones which sometimes don't work very well with ROM replacement like Ez-o-ray or Caetla. Also you should really AVOID the EMS cartridge, which is one of these clones coming with a ripped-off (also crippled) Caetla rom flashed. (And we all know ripping SUX, do we? =))
Commslink (developed by DATEL) - about 20$US
To code using AR you need to physically connect PSX and PC with a PC Comm Link which is a PC ISA card with a high speed parallel port. However, if you are familiar with a soldering iron, you may want to built the Freewing or the nonstd lpt-port interface which is now supported by caetla.
Xplorer/Xploder (developed by Future Console Design) - about 50 $US
This is another kind of cheat-cartridge that you can also use to upload and run your stuff. It has the big advantage that it connects to a standard parallel port, and also the latest release of the Caetla rom will enable a lot of useful functions for you.
Serial Cable (developed by Skywalker/Hitmen) - about 5 $US
This neat hack will kinda (together with a modchip) turn your grey psx into a yaroze. This solution is really cheap but it has the same drawbacks as a normal yaroze has, that is slow serial transfer (compared to highspeed commslink) and the necessity of a little routine hooked in memory to establish the transfer.
MOD-Chip - about 5$US
Since hard- and software protection is being used in CD-ROM of PlayStation, you need to install a so called mod-chip in your playstation to read data from homemade cd-roms. However, you don't need that for programming or uploading/executing psx-executables.


Action Replay flash-ROM replacement
Inside ARP there is a flash EEPROM, that contains the code executed by Playstation when the ARP itself is turned on. A ROM Replacement is a binary file that can be flashed inside the ARP.
You need to replace the original ROM by one that is more suitable for coding (so you can manually load executables and data file inside PSX memory, inspect/modify memory and registers, etc.) or else you will go mad for sure after working with the tools that came with the cart (since they are mostly made for cheating games, not running 3l337 code hehe) ;=)
myAR (by Foo Chen Hon) get it here (15kb)
This is a skeleton example of an AR/GS rom replacement. It comes complete with source for reference and its quite easy to add whatever desired function.
Ez-o-Ray (by Snake & McBain)
EZ-o-Ray is the historical ROM replacement. It is simple to use, but development was discontinued for unknown reasons.
Caetla (by K-Comm)
Caetla has tons of features, and it is under development. These days 100% translated english versions are available, it has support for both AR and xploder. Although the only way to get it is to register for an account at their pages with a NON-anonymous mail account (they filter out shit like hotmail, gmx, yahoo etc). This was a reaction to Caetla being ripped by EMS, and since k-comm still don't charge no money or whatever i'd just advice you to respect their wishes.
unless you don't like diehard hexeditor coding, you'll need one of these 8=)
PsyQ (by SN and SONY)
PsyQ is the official compiler set, included in the official Sony Development Kit for Playstation. It is available from Sony Corporation for licensed developers only, so i suggest you to forget it.
YAROZE (by SONY, partially GNU)
The tools coming with the yaroze devkit generally are a mips-crosscompiler built on GNU, but they come with copyright protected libraries and some tools. You cannot legally use it unless you are a member of NET YAROZE.
MIPSGCC (by CO) get it here (2404kb)
This is a Cross compiler build on the GNU sources. It doesn't come with any libs nor examples, but nevertheless its FREE.
spASM (by Silpheed/Hitmen) get it here (41kb)
This is a free r3000/PSX assembler
ECO2EXE (by Silpheed/Hitmen) get it here (30kb)
Black EXEs are the executable generated by Yaroze compilers (that is, GNU gcc compilers). They are in ECOFF format, and can be converted to Gray EXE with ECO2EXE . Black EXEs don't contain the libraries, that are indeed located inside an external file, called LIBPS.EXE. If you want to execute a Yaroze intro/game on real PSX, you must load this file to 0x8000f800 before running the intro or game.
MODE (by Nik/Napalm) get it here (23kb)
Use this to change the video mode (PAL/NTSC) in psx- or yaroze .exe's
COMBINE (by Barubary) get it here
Links a Gray-Exe and LIBPS together in order to get a one-filed executable.
CPE2EXE (by Nagra/Blackvision) get it here
.CPE is an intermediate executable format generated by PsyQ. You can use CPE2EXE to convert it to a Gray EXEs.
ByteKiller (by Silpheed/Hitmen) get it here (32kb)
This is a port of the known packer from Amiga.
GfxConv (by Silpheed/Hitmen) get it here (31kb)
Image data needs to be converted to a format suitable for uploading to the psx's vram. Use this tool to do it...
HitLice (by Jihad/Hitmen) get it here (21kb)
Use this tools to insert the licence data into your homemade .iso images so they will boot on a chipped psx.
HitMod (by Silpheed/Hitmen) get it here (405kb)
This includes everything you need to play .mod files in your productions.
SinusLab (by Groepaz/Hitmen) get it here exe only (21kb) full install (844kb)
This is an easy to use sinus-table generator.
CatFlap (by ?/Napalm) get it here
An excellent replacement for psexe to be used with caetla rom (worx under nt as well!)

Now when i got all this, how to make it work?

Setting up your Tools

set path=%path%;c:ez
set ar_port=320                (set to CommsLink port)

essential commands
ez flash                       (flash rom)
ez load <filename> <address>    (upload binary)
ez run <filename>              (upload+run exe)

note: ez runs 'gray' executables only, 'black' exe's need to be patched using ECO2EXE.
set path=%path%;c:caetla
set port=2                     (AR/CommsLink 0:300   1:310   2:320   3:330
                                AR/ExStand   4:LPT1  5:LPT2  6:LPT3
                                AR/FreeWing  7:LPT1  8:LPT2  9:LPT3
                                Xploder     10:LPT1 11:LPT2 12:LPT3
                                Xploder(jap)13:LPT1 14:LPT2 15:LPT3)

essential commands
caeflash caetla.bin            (flash rom)
caeflash -XT caetla.bin        (incase you upgrade from original xploder rom)
psexe <filename> -d<address>    (upload binary)
psexe <filename>               (upload+run exe)

note: caetla runs both 'gray' and 'black' executables
Xlink (X-plorer)
essential commands
xlink u <filename> <address>    (upload binary)
xlink x <filename> <>     (upload+run exe)
SIOcons (Yaroze/Serial cable from Skywalker)
notice the psx must be booted with the yaroze bootdisc prior to using SIOcons

setting up a higher baudrate:

- put a memory card in slot2
- start siocons
- at the prompt, type "BAUD 115200"
- quit siocons with ,
- restart siocons with the command line "siocons -B115200"
- save this new baud rate to the memory card by choosing "yes"
- Whenever siocons is started after this, you will have to supply the "-B115200" parameter to use the new baud rate

essential commands
,    (bring up upload binary prompt)
         (bring up upload/run exe prompt)
,   (exit SIOcons)
set PSYQ_PATH=c:psyq
set COMPILER_PATH=c:psyq
set C_INCLUDE_PATH=c:psyqinclude
set LIBRARY_PATH=c:psyqlib
set TMP_DIR=c:temp
set path=%path%;c:psyq

note: look also at sn.ini
set PSDIR=c:/yaroze/psx
set DJGPP=c:/yaroze/psx/djgpp.env
set PATH=%path%;c:yarozepsxbin;c:yarozegnubin

note: look also at djgpp.env
set PATH=%path%;c:mipsgcc
set MIPS_TEMP=c:temp
set MIPS_COMPILER_PATH=c:mipsgcc
set MIPS_LIBRARY_PATH=c:mipsgcclib
set MIPS_C_INCLUDE_PATH=c:mipsgccinclude
set MIPS_CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH=c:mipsgccinclude
fighting with your makefiles
A make-utility generally provides functionality similar to ms-dos batch files and it can be used for various purposes. However, since different make utilities can be used and there also is no space to give a detailed overview about how to write makefiles, i list the necessary commands required to compile mycode.c and get a 'black' executable in the end. If you are not familiar with makefiles yet, i'd suggest you using simple batch files first to get used to the compiler-you will find your favourite make utility sooner or later =)
ccpsx -O2 -Xo010000 mycode.c mylib.o -o mycode.cpe
cpe2x mycode.cpe
gcc -O2 -Xlinker -Ttext -Xlinker 80010000 -o mycode.exe mycode.c
eco2exe -p mycode.exe
for a program using systemcalls and your own lib

mipsgcc -O2 -Xlinker -mpsx -Xlinker -Ttext -Xlinker 80010000 -o mycode.exe mycode.c mylib.o syscall.o start.o

for a program using libps

mipsgcc -O2 -Xlinker -mpsx -Xlinker -Ttext -Xlinker 80010000 -lps -o mycode.exe mycode.c start.o

GNU options

never worked with GNU tools? this might help you out for a start!
-S output assembler code (.s)
-c output object code (.o)
-O2 Effective in optimization
-o <file> specify output filename
-D <macro> define a symbol (same as #define <macro>)
-D <macro=def> define a symbol (same as #define <macro> <def>)
-l<xx> link library named "libxx.a"
-Xlinker <option> An option is passed to a linker.
-v output lotsa debugging info
--help guess what
linker options
-Xlinker -Ttext -Xlinker <hex address> start address (CO's mipsgcc default is 80100000)
-Xlinker -meco/-mpsx generate ECOFF/PSX-EXE format (CO gcc mipsgcc default is ELF)

Creation of a library for MIPSGCC

Start up code get it here
Since in GCC the code is performed from _start, a startup code that rises main is needed. _start just initializes bss area and gp registers here, and __main does nothing.
However, initializing heap and other general stuff may also be performed before main() is called. (also, using the heap routines from system calls is NOT recommended, since they are buggy crap =))
extern long _fbss;
extern long _end;
extern long _gp;

register long *gp asm("gp");

long *adr;

for(adr = _fbss;adr<_end;*adr++=0); // init bss area
gp = _gp; // setup gp registers
main(); // call main()

__main(){} // called at the head of main()

compile: mipsgcc -O2 -c start.c
System call library get it here
Although dividing it into standard header files (strings.h,memory.h...) would be more desireable (so it may not link what is not necessary) it has not been done here since it had been a little troublesome-so it makes one object file here.

Using system calls
To use system-calls from c, you need to write yourself a wrapper function that passes the arguments from/to the called bios-routine. When an argument is required in a system call, it is always passed by $a0, $a1, $a2, and $a3, and five or more arguments are passed by $sp+0x10. Also, the system call number is put into $t1 (), and the address (0xa0, 0xb0, 0xc0) of a system call is called.
return value (if any), is returned by $v0 (). The return format is the same as that of function call agreement of mips-gcc, so an argument (state of $a0,$a1,$a2,$a3 and a stack) is left intact, and $t1 () is set up.

.macro BIOSCALL type,no,name
.align 2
.globl name
.ent name
li ,type
.set noreorder
li ,no
.set reorder
.end name

.macro SYSTEMCALL no,name
.align 2
.globl name
.ent name
li ,no
.end name
Example of a wrapper function:

prototype declaration:
int open (char * name, int mode);

        li      ,0xa0 #system call address
        .set noreorder
        li      ,0    #system call number
        .set reorder

Here, although it is using for the temporary register for a jump, if it is except the register with the necessity saving within a function, it will not care about anything. Although it is puzzling just for a moment because of delay branch of mips, if it writes plainly

        li      ,0xa0 #system call address
        li      ,0    #system call number

When open function is called, an argument is passed to $ a0 and $ a1 like the function of usual C, and the return address is put into $ ra, and open is called. By open, then, $ a0, $ a1, and $ ra put a system call number into $ t1, and jump it to a system call. In a system call, a system call is processed from passed $ a0 and $ a1, and it returns to the place where the address, i.e. open function, of $ ra were called.
Back is easy, once it has written the wrapper function by the assembler or the in-line assembler of GCC, although knowledge of an assembler is required for this neighborhood a little. assemble syscall.s: mipsgcc -c syscall.s
standard C library
Although most C standard functions are in a system call, it can have from libc of GNU the thing for which it is insufficient. Although a floating-point operation coprocessor is not in PlayStation, there is also a floating-point operation library of software.
matrix library get it here
A GTE optimized matrix library hasnt been published yet, but for now you can have a look at this standard-c version
libps import library and header file get it here
Although libps.a and header files are not available for the public, it was possible for someone to create them from looking at libps.exe. This is considered to be legal since cygwin32 and mingw32 (which are gcc for Win32) provide similar files for Win32.DLL.

First Aid

my Commslink cable fucked up ...!
The cable is just a standard 25-pin sub-D male>female, ALL pins connected straight through. If you don't care about building one yourself, a normal modem cable (also the cable for Iomega ZIP drive) is said to work.
my ARP seems to be fucked up and i can not reflash it ...!
First make sure all the rest of your stuff is fine... check all your environment variables, cables etc again. If all that doesn't help and you have access to a cd-writer, try the 'Ez-O-Ray flasher' (cdrwin/24kb) (easycd/20kb) which will probably help you to solve your problems.

Programming Basics

Memory Map
00000000 - 001FFFFF (2mb)
1F000000 - 1F7FFFFF (up to 8mb)
1F801000 - 1F801xxx (8kb)
80000000 - 801FFFFF (2mb)
80000000 - 8000FFFF (64kb)
         - 801FFFF0
bfc00000 - bfc7ffff (512kb)
RAM (uncached)
adaptor rom shadow (action replay/gameshark)
hardware i/o map: gpu, pads, memcard, pio port, sio port
-System Area
-Stack Area
System ROM (BIOS)
Controlling the Hardware
generally the control of hardware is performed through the memory mapped I/O from 0x1F801000 to 0x1F801???.
In order to control GPU (draw lines, flat triangle polygon, gouraud textured square polygon, etc.) send the command packet with specific structure by each primitive (basic figure). This is the same thing as Execute Buffer of Direct3D Immediate Mode.
In order to send a command to GPU, there are two, the method of sending 1 word (32 bits) every by CPU using a memory mapped I/O (primitives will be drawn immediately), and method of sending the link list of two or more packets (=an OT list/Ordering Table) at a stretch using DMA, and both are in a system call.
The pointer to packet size and the following packet is attached to the head of a packet usual in a link list.

 8bit 24bit  
|size|next ptr|  
|pkt       |
|pkt       |
|pkt       |
|pkt  |

24 bits of low ranks are 24 bits of the low ranks of the address of the following packet. Since only 2 M has memory, PlayStation can be expressed enough by 24 bits (it can express up to 16M). 8 bits of highest order are size in word (32 bits) of the packet. In 0, it is the packet of the empty without substance of a packet. An end of a list is -1 (0xffffffff) probably.

simple automated pal/ntsc detection (well, it actually detects the bios version but that should be reliable enough):

if (*(char *)0xbfc7ff52=='E') SetVideoMode(1);  // PAL
else SetVideoMode(0);                           // NTSC
parallel port
checking the action replay's switch state:

volatile u_long* ar_switch=(u_long*)0x1f020018; // up: 0xffffffff down: 0xfefefefe
if ((*ar_switch)&1) {
   // do something for switch up
else {
   // do something for switch down

Input and output of a file
Input and output of a file can be treated systematically by the system call equivalent to the low level input-and-output function of C, such as open/read/write/lseek/close. read/write/lseek needs to carry out in a block unit peculiar to device. CD-ROM is 2048 bytes and the memory card is 128 bytes. It seems that it precedes using these and interruption needs to be permitted by ExitCriticalSection();.

The file name is passed in the form of "device name:filename".

device name  device                   note

 cdrom:      CD-ROM                   (read only-naturally ;=)
 bu00:       Memory card of slot 1
 bu10:       Memory card of slot 2
 pcdrv:      Hard disk of PC          (caetla extension, CWD is root)

In order to use a memory card, It seems that InitCARD(1); StartCARD(); _bu_init(); needs to be performed first. It seems that moreover, what in which the file name of a memory card had a certain law nature so that the file name of save data of each soft hat might not overlap is long is used.

CD-ROM must be initialized using CDInit(); _96_init(); to make the ISO filesystem operational.
According to level 1 of ISO, as for the file name of CD-ROM, ";1" is attached to the end of English capital-letter 8.3 form.

In order to see information (file size etc.) and the directory of a file, a system call of firstfile/nextfile is used. This resembles the treatment of DOS or Windows. Since lseek can carry out only in block, the technique of lseeking at the file end and making the file pointer of the position file size cannot be used.
In order to load and start an exe from within another exe, use this fragment of code:

creating a bootable CD
1. prepare your Files
- make sure your files have a multiple length of 2048 bytes and your exe-headers are ok. (EXEFIXUP helps with that nicely)
- in order to let the psx find the exe to boot at startup, either simply name it "PSX.EXE" or write a "SYSTEM.CNF" file that must be placed in the root dir of the cd.

BOOT = cdrom:MY.EXE;1
TCB = 4
EVENT = 16

2. make a proper cd image

(EasyCD pro 95/HITLICE)

- Use EasyCd pro 95 to build an iso (if you intend using HITLICE for inserting the license info.Most other programs won't create suitable sector data).
- Use HITLICE to insert the licence data into the .iso
- Use EasyCDpro 95 to burn your CD - you're set. or


- use BUILDCD to create a cd image file (notice this is NOT some .iso that you can burn to a cd!)

example .cti file:

Disc XA_PSX    ;disk format

LeadIn XA      ;lead in track, track 0
Empty 1000     ;defines lead in size min (150)
PostGap 150    ;required gap at end of lead in
EndTrack       ;end of lead in track

Track XA                  ;start of XA (data) track
Pause 150                 ;required pause in first track after lead in
Volume ISO9660            ;define ISO 9660 volume
SystemArea LICENSE.DAT    ;required licence data file

PrimaryVolume                      ;start point of primary volume
SystemIdentifier "PLAYSTATION"     ;required identifier
VolumeIdentifier "ECTSDEMO"        ;app specific identifiers
VolumeSetIdentifier "ECTSDEMO"
PublisherIdentifier "SCEE"
DataPreparerIdentifier "AJM"
ApplicationIdentifier "ECTSDEMO"

Lpath          ;Path tables as specified for PlayStation

Hierarchy      ;start point of root directory definition

File PSX.EXE;1
XAFileAttributes Form1 data
Source psx.exe

EndHierarchy       ;ends root directory definition
EndPrimaryVolume   ;ends primary volume definition
EndVolume          ;ends ISO 9660 definition
PostGap 150        ;required to change track type
EndTrack           ;ends track definition

LeadOut XA
Empty 150


-use STRIPISO to fix your image file, so it can be burned with CDRWIN

stripiso s 2336 my.img my.iso

-write the .iso to a CDR (or CDRW if your PSX is capable to read them, you may try that by playing some audio from CDRW first) with CDRWIN.

example cuesheet:
TRACK 01 MODE2/2336
INDEX 01 00:00:00
POSTGAP 00:02:00
the serial Port

Control Register bit Contents

12CR_DSRIEN1: DSR Interrupt Permission
11CR_RXIEN1: Receive Interrupt Permission
10CR_TXIEN1: Transmission Interrupt Permission
5CR_RTS1: RTS is on
4CR_ERRRST 1:Interrupt and error flag clear
2CR_RXEN1: Receive permission
1CR_DTR1: DTR is on
0CR_TXEN1: Transmission permission

Mode Register bit Contents

7,6stop bit length
MR_SB_0101: 1
MR_SB_1010: 1.5
MR_SB_1111: 2
5MR_P_EVEN parity 21: odd 0: even
4MR_PEN parity 11: exists
3,2character length
MR_CHLEN_500: 5 bit
MR_CHLEN_601: 6
MR_CHLEN_710: 7
MR_CHLEN_811: 8

So far so good... Now, may i look at some examples?

Hello World
a first dumb program that you can use to test your setup
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
hello.s ? ? ? MIPSAS ?
hello.c ? ? ? MIPSGCC ?
Simple 2D Stuff
setting up GPU, simple Primitive drawing
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
GreenTro Silpheed 14-09-1998 44kb spASM Grab the source to Silpheed's GreenTro intro now!
Sprite Sample Jihad 05-09-1997 73kb Psy-Q This is a very basic example of the Playstation and all its capabilities.
Sprite Sample Jihad 05-09-1997 126kb Yaroze -
poly2d.c ? ? ? MIPSGCC ?
Liamgall Tim Stuff Liamgall 12-10-1998 133kb Psy-Q How to handle images in your releases, really nice example!
Simple 3D Stuff
initializing 3D subsystem, displaying objects in TMD format
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
Car 1.0 Sachiko 11-11-1995 153kb Yaroze Another probably never seen before source, and it about, euhm, cars.
SPU Stuff
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
Vag-Pack 0.1 Bitmaster 28-05-1998 1kb Psy-Q Source to Pack VAG samples
Vag-Depack 0.1 Bitmaster 28-05-1998 3kb Psy-Q Source to Depack VAG samples
misc - Intros/Demos
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
Remembers Amiga BrainWalker 16-09-1998 251kb Yaroze look here for a Starfield, a Scroller and some Sprite-Stuff
advanced Stuff - Games
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
Breakout L. Evans 25-09-1996 100kb Yaroze A really nice, probably never seen before, source of this kick ass game!
Clone S. Ashley 28-02-1997 383kb Yaroze They are taking over the world! Yet another cool source in your face!
tech Stuff
Release Coder We got it on How big Compiler What the fuck is it
Psx Movie Finder 1.0 S-Man 05-10-1998 3kb C Grab this tools Source now! Get your Psx Movie's now!
Psx Xa Copier 1.0 S-Man 05-10-1998 3kb C Grab this Source as well! Extracts tunes from Psx CD's.

Where to get Information on PSX so i don't have to re-invent the wheel again?

First of all look at these www-sites, i suppose a lot of your questions will be answered there, if you are a member of NET YAROZE i suggest you reading your docs again, also looking at some example Sources might help you out.
Nevertheless don't be scared about asking on the psxdev-mailing list or at #psxdev on effnet ... (keep in mind there are no stupid questions, just stupid answers... 8=)

Is it legal to program the PSX?

Licensed developers
Naturally it is legal for those, but on the other hand the situation is somewhat tricky if you wanted to spread your work to the public without going the 'official' way (due to your NDA)... nevertheless i don't think you are a licensed coder reading this... so ?! ;=)
Members of Net Yaroze
If ya own a Yaroze you can legally use Yaroze libs (LIBPS.EXE) and compilers, but still are not allowed to spread LIBPS.EXE (which is absolutely necessary to run your code). However, don't expect your amount of friends at SONY getting bigger by spreading anything else either.
Hobby programmer using CommsLink+ActionReplay/Gameshark
GNU gcc for MIPS, compiled for DOS, Win32 and Linux is available on the Net, as well some assemblers (for e.g. SPASM by Silpheed/Hitmen). As long as you don't use either PSYQ or YAROZE libs it'll be legal to program and spread your work. I am not sure if SONY likes you burning 'un-officially' licensed cd's though.

boring Stuff

The information is provided "as is". Although i am doing my best i can not give any warranty that it is right or not, so use it at your own risk. You should also be aware of the fact that you shouldn't use this information for other than educational purposes. I can not be made responsible for any misuse of the provided information, nor may you blame me for your fucked up GS or your lame code deleting memorycards instead of drawing lines.
The provided information was assembled from various sources such as the above mentioned web-sites and nevertheless some of my own experience.
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